A Wrinkle in Time (1962) by Madeleine L'Engle, features a female protagonist in a science fiction novel in 1962, practically revolutionary. Meg Murry is fourteen and her scientist-father has gone mysteriously missing while working on a project for the government (of course). Meg, her friend Calvin O'Keefe and her little brother Charles Wallace go in search of Mr. Murry throughout the universe, aided by Mrs Whatsit (who used to be a star but exploded herself in an act of political protest), by use of a tesseract (think wormhole), which has something to do with fifth dimensions, and the bending of the space-time continuum (quantum physics!). The mission turns out to be nothing less than saving the world from evil, which has everything to do with conformity and the group-think of the status quo.
P.S. A shout-out to Ellen Raskin from yesterday's recommendation for The Tattooed Potato and Other Clues: she did the artwork on the original dust jacket for A Wrinkle in Time.